Diabetic macular edema (DME), characterized by an increase of thickness in the eye macular area, is due to breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Hypoxia plays a key role in the progression of this pathology by activating the hypoxia-inducible factors. In the last years, various studies have put their attention on the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in retinal dysfunction. However, until now, no study has investigated their protective role against the harmful combined effect of both hyperglycemia and hypoxia on outer BRB. Therefore, in the present study, we have analyzed the role of these peptides on permeability, restoration of tight junctions expression and inhibition of hyperglycemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis, in an experimental in vitro model of outer BRB. Our results have demonstrated that the peptides' treatment have restored the integrity of outer BRB induced by cell exposure to hyperglycemia/hypoxia. Their effect is mediated through the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mammalian mitogen activated protein kinase/Erk kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathways. In conclusion, our study further clarifies the mechanism through which PACAP and VIP perform the beneficial effect on retinal damage induced by hyperglycemic/hypoxic insult, responsible of DME progression.
|Titolo:||VIP Family Members Prevent Outer Blood Retinal Barrier Damage in a Model of Diabetic Macular Edema|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|